Classification of Dyeing Agent
First, by source can be divided into
1. Natural Dyeing Agent: mainly hematoxylin, carmine, lichen red, saffron.
2. Synthetic Dyeing Agent: is derived from coal tar benzene derivatives. In the biological staining also use some inorganic compounds, such as silver nitrate, gold chloride, sulfur, osmium acid, potassium permanganate and so on.
Second, divided by the main purpose
1. nuclear staining agent: hematoxylin, carmine, toluidine blue, beautiful blue, malachite green and so on.
2. cytoplasmic staining agent: red, light green, orange G, acid magenta, picric acid and so on.
3. lipid staining agent: Sudan Ⅲ, Sudan Ⅳ, Sudan black, sulfur blue and oil red and so on.
Third, according to the color of the chromophore molecules can be divided into nine categories
1. nitroso class: chromophore is nitroso (-NO) such as naphthol margin-B.
2. Nitro Dyeing Agent: The chromophore is nitro (-NO2) such as picric acid.
3. Azo: chromophore is azo (-N = N-) belongs to this type of colorant orange G, Congo red, Bismarck brown and many Sudanese lipid Dyeing Agent.
4. Quinone imines: This type of Dyeing Agent contains two chromophores, one is the amine group (-N =), one is quinone benzene ring, such as thionine, the United States blue, toluidine blue O, Blue, neutral red, alkaline saffron O, tar purple and so on.
5. Benzene Dyeing Agent: chromophore is quinone benzene ring, such as peacock edge, light green, alkaline magenta, acid magenta, crystal violet, methyl edge and so on.
6. Shan Ding Dyeing Agent: chromophore is quinone benzene ring, such as Paroonin, Iraq red Y and so on.
7. Anthraquinone Dyeing Agents: Such Dyeing Agent contain chromogen anthraquinones, such as alizarin and cochineal acid.
8,9 class of Dyeing Agent used very little.
Fourth, according to the chemical properties of the coloring agent classification
The dry powder of the stain is a stable salt which is ionized into an acidic or alkaline Dyeing Agent in solution. Such as acid Dyeing Agent, can produce hydrogen ions (H +) or other cations (Na +), and itself itself becomes negatively charged anions. Such Dyeing Agent are generally used for stained cytoplasm, such as eosin Y, picric acid, orange G and so on. Alkaline Dyeing Agent can produce hydroxide ions (OH -) or other negative ions (such as Cl-), and themselves become positively charged cations. Such Dyeing Agent are commonly used in Dyeing Agentd nuclei, such as alkaloids.
1. Acidic coloring agent: chromogen-assisted chromophore - Na → [chromogen-assisted chromophore] + Na +. Commonly used such as eosin, acid magenta, picric acid, orange G, Congo red, water-soluble aniline blue, light green and other acid Dyeing Agents commonly used to stain cytoplasm and other alkaline ingredients.
2. Alkaline Dyeing Agent: chromogen-assisted chromophore - Cl → [chromogen-assisted chromophore] ++ Cl. Commonly used such as hematoxylin, card red, methine blue, toluidine blue, thionine, blue and other basic Dyeing Agents commonly used to Dyeing Agent nuclei and other acidic components.
Strictly speaking, the acid stain solution is not necessarily acidic. Likewise, the alkaline Dyeing Agent solution may not be alkaline. The so-called acidic and alkaline Dyeing Agents only refers to their ionization after the main part of its molecular staining is cation or anion. So it is more appropriate to call a cationic or anionic Dyeing Agent.
The pH value of the hematoxylin in conventional H.E staining is about 7, and the chemical composition of the nucleus is ionized to produce H +, which itself is a charged anion, so it is colored by the cationic basic Dyeing Agent agent. Iraq red Dyeing Agent for weak acid. The chemical composition of the cells from the solution to obtain H + and become a positively charged cation, so with the anionic type of acid Dyeing Agent (red) combination, Dyeing Agentd red, which is H.E staining showed the mechanism of nuclear and cytoplasm.
3. Neutral Dyeing Agent: This is a complex of acid Dyeing Agent and alkaline Dyeing Agent, also known as complex Dyeing Agents. Is made of basic Dyeing Agents (chromogenic salts) and acid Dyeing Agents (chromic acid salts) from the preparation. Which is very large molecules of the Dyeing Agent, so often low solubility in water, need to use alcohol as a solvent. Hematology in hematology often used Wright's coloring agent and Giemsa coloring agent is this mixed coloring agent. Which can be divided into a variety of different components of the nuclear, cytoplasm and particle coloring.